India is a land of ancient civilization. India’s social, economic, and cultural configurations are of a long process of regional expansion. History of india begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization and the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usually described as the pre-Vedic and Vedic age. Hinduism arose in the Vedic period.
india was unified under Ashoka, who had converted to Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread in many parts of Asia. In the eighth century Islam came to India for the first time and by the eleventh century had firmly established itself in India as a political force. It resulted into the formation of the Delhi Sultanate, which was finally succeeded by the Mughal Empire, under which India once again achieved a large measure of political unity.
Europeans came to India in 17th century. This coincided with the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, paving the way for regional states. In the contest for supremacy, the English emerged ‘victors’. The Rebellion of 1857-58, which sought to restore Indian supremacy, was crushed; and with the subsequent crowning of Victoria as Empress of India, the incorporation of India into the empire was complete. It was followed by India’s struggle for independence, which we got in the year 1947.read more
This history begins with the Indus natural Civilization (3300–1300 BC), whose economy seems to possess depended considerably on trade. Around 600 BC, the Mahajanapadas minted punch-marked silver coins. the amount was marked by intensive trade activity and concrete development. By 300 BC, the Maurya Empire had united most of the Indian landmass. The ensuing political unity and military security allowed for a standard national economy and increased trade and commerce, with enlarged agricultural productivity.read more
After the death of Harsha the Rajputs came into prominence on the political horizons of North India. The Rajputs were renowned for his or her bravery and chivalry however family feuds and powerful notions of private pride usually resulted into conflicts. The Rajputs weakened one another by constant bargaining. The disagreement among Rajputs allowed the foreigners (Turks) to enter India. The defeat of Prithvi dominion Chauhan (the greatest Rajput someone of the time) at the hands of Mohammad Ghori, within the battle of Tarain 1192, marked a replacement chapter within the history of India.read more
With their elaborate superfluities and wonderful architecture, Indian monuments represent one of the most outstanding facets of the multi-faceted Indian culture. An architectural feat in itself, each Indian monument is a remarkably splendid sample of unbelievable artistry, covering a sense of mystery, deception and romance. Be it the marvel in white marble, the spellbinding Taj Mahal; or the red stone splendor, the magnificent Red Fort; or the magnificence of temple art of Khajuraho, Konark and Hampi , there is evident the master craftsmanship and elegance, that brings to the forefront the splendor of the bygone era. Monuments are witnesses of India’s past; the monuments of India are also the guardian pillars of India’s cultural heritage. The monuments of India have become an inspiration for the future generations.read more
The Aryans,the primary influence in the Indian history,appeared in the northern India between the 2000 and 1000 B.C. They had migrated to India from the northwest,possibly from south central Asia.a people of Caucasoid(white) stock,they succeeded in establishing themselves as a ruling minority in India. It was the Aryans who laid the basis for Indian culture by developing and spreading Hinduism and its handmaid,the caste system . As they became more and more firmly entrenched,the Aryans religion and culture largely absorbed and replaced the local religions and cultures that had preceded them.read more
The situation changed sharply when the mogul empire fell apart at the beginning of the 18th century.The regional rivalries that erupted all over the India played into the hands of the french and British.They extended their own rivalry into India and each of them made alliances with the different Indian princes in order to expel the other from India.The Indian princes in turn sought to exploit the british and french to increase their own strength in relation to one another.
The result of all this intrigue for power was that by the mid-18th century India was a chaotic battleground where the british and french fought each others;divided among the british and french and various local rulers.
British victories in 1751 over the french near madras and in 1757 over the Nawab of Bengal at Plassey, a small village in west Bengal,were extremely decisive in securing the final victory for Britain.Robert Clive, the famous british solider and statesman,led the british forces in these battles.From 1757 on, british steadily widened the areas under its control,and by the middle of the 19th century, it had firm control over nearly the entire Indian subcontinent. Just as Indian disunity had made the Indian subcontinent prey to Muslim conquest and domination, so too it had paved the way for british conquest.British domination however lasted only about 2 centuries. compared with 5 centuries of muslim domination.When India finally gained independence from the british, it was the first time in at least eight centuries that the entire subcontinent was free of foreign domination,and India’s prime minister- Jawaharlal Nehru, well understood the lesson India had been taught:it was the country’s own disunity that had allowed this domination to come about.read more
The Muslim conquest of India was the second foreign conquest that brought about far-reaching changes in India. Muslim domination came through a series of conquests, resulting in ever-widening control of the Indian subcontinent . Despite their lengthy domination of India, the Muslim conquerors remained as much a foreign occupying power as the British later were ,and the amount of restlessness, discontent and active opposition to Muslim rule was as great as later it was under British rule. Ultimately, Hinduism employ far greater impact on the religion of the Muslim in India and vice versa. Muslim produce some of the world’s most beautiful architectural monuments.
The first decisive Muslim conquest of India took place in 1193 under Mohammed Ghori,who established his capital at Delhi and went on to conquer northern India and as far as Bengal. Mohammed Ghori’s successor established the Delhi Sultanate in 1206.He continued ghori policy of intolerance towards the Hindus and was responsible for the plunder and wreckage of Hindu temples.He used the materials from ruined Hindu temples for the construction of Muslim shrines.The succeeding rulers of the Delhi sultanate consolidated its control over the northern India during the rest of the 13th century and during the 14th century.read more
More than 4000 years ago there flourished in the north -western parts of the indo-pakistan subcontinent a civilization which,deriving its name from the main river of the region, is known as the Indus civilization.In fact,however its extended far beyond the limits of that valley-from the Sutkagen-dor, on the sea board of the south of Baluchistan, in the west to Alamgirpur,in the upper Ganga-Yamuna doab in uttar pradesh ,in the east;and from Ropar ,almost impinging upon the sub-himalayan foothills,in the north of Bhagatrav ,on the esturacy of the kim,a small river between the Narmada and tapti in the south.In other words from west to east the Indus Civilization covered an area of 1600 kilometers, and from north to south of 1100 kilometers, and it will not be suprising if future discoveries widen the horizons still further.This is an area much greater than that occupied jointly by the contemporary civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia and throughtout the region a notable high Standard of living was reached, which is reflected in almost every walk of life. read more